Science learning from a variety of theoretical and methodological perspectives. Includes theories, models, and empirical results on conceptual understanding, conceptual change approaches to learning in science, methodology for investigating students’ processes of concept formation and concept use, and strategies to promote conceptual development.

Science learning from multi-facet dimensions that go beyond conceptual understanding. Theories, models, methodologies, and empirical results about the cognitive, affective, aesthetics and social dimensions in learning science; design of learning environments; studies of learning processes concerning cognitive, affective, aesthetic and social engagement of scientific contents; forms of representational languages and knowledge organisation, including methods of collaborative construction of knowledge.    

Theories, models, and empirical results about teaching processes, curriculum design and implementation. Includes design, adoption, exchange, refinement and transformation of teaching interventions, materials, and tools, including laboratory and inquiry-based practices. Also, research-based interventions and their role for curriculum design, instructional paths and learning goals, and classroom implementations, refinement, and evaluation of teaching-learning sequences; learning progressions, etc.; and models of co-design and factors that influence teachers’ roles, ownership, and accountability.

Design, evaluation and characterization of innovative resources, technological applications, digital tools, software, and environments for teaching/learning science, e.g., ICT and TEL in science education. Includes online learning environments, simulation, modelling tools, virtual and/or remote laboratories, game-based tools; self-regulation, reflection, and collaboration in digital learning environments; and implementation of machine learning, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence into teaching/learning science.

Nature of science and its history, philosophy, sociology and epistemology      for teaching/learning of science. Includes the significance of models and modelling for science education as reflected in the particular importance attached to the use of metaphors, analogy, modelling, argumentation, explanation, visualisation, simulations, animations and gamifications in science.

Theories, models, foundational debates, and empirical results related to inter/multi/trans-disciplinarity in science, mathematics, STEM, STEAM and beyond, including the human sciences. Includes ontological, epistemological, methodological, and institutional aspects related to disciplinary identities and how they can interact; and debates and approaches related to curriculum, standards, pedagogy and policy, including cross-cutting and emerging topics.

Understanding, supporting, and promoting the use of evidence and argumentation discourse in science education. Includes scientific practices related to knowledge evaluation and communication, supporting the development of critical thinking, discourse analysis, talking and writing science in the classroom, and meaning making in science classrooms.    

Teaching and learning about scientific literacy, socio-scientific issues and citizenship education. Topics in the strand include understanding the social aspects of science, critical media/literacy reasoning, decision making and debates on socio-scientific issues (SSI), public engagement and participation in science and understanding the relevance of science. The aforementioned topics can focus either on teachers or students.

Theories, methods, and practices of science education for sustainability, agency, and futures literacy. Includes future-oriented proposals for framing science education research agenda into contemporary debates on agency, sustainable development and sustainability education as well as analysis, discussion and reflection about both contemporary and foundational competence frameworks, reports and agendas at the European and international level.

Theories, methods, and practices about environmental, ecological, earth, health, and medicine education. Includes debate about literacies and approaches related to the environment, including indigenous perspectives and connection with more comprehensive aspects of justice as well as planetary well-being, and the design, development, and evaluation of the impact of programmes and experiences.

Teaching and learning theories and practices in informal, non-formal, and out-of-school settings such as museums, science centres, outdoor settings, community programs (including indigenous communities), communications media, after-school programs and clubs. Includes design, adoption, exchange, and evaluation of informal, non-formal, and out-of-school learning environments, especially those organised by institutions other than schools, as well as informal and non-formal approaches to the teaching/learning of science.

Socio-political, sociocultural, multicultural, multilingual, multi-modal, intersectional, racial/ethnic, equity, critical, feminist, and gender studies, as well as special needs in science education. Proposals that include theories, methods, and practices related to ways-of-being and ways-of-knowing in science education and through an array of onto-epistemological perspectives, ideas, theoretical, and methodological approaches build on and perhaps exceed identity in inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary ways. Inviting critical examination of identities as multiple and situated in various systems of power and privilege to afford complex understandings of educational opportunities related to access and achievement.  

Science curricula development including design, adoption, and comparison, as well as reform implementation, dissemination, and evaluation. Includes evaluation systems and practices adopted and implemented in schools and institutions; and construction, interpretation, implementation, implication and reflection of policies and reforms at the local, regional, national, or international levels concerning science education.

Development, validation and use of standardised tests; instruments for measuring attitudes, interests, beliefs, self-efficacy, science process skills and conceptual understandings; authentic assessment, formative assessment, summative assessment, as well as approaches to assessment, monitoring student learning and implications for teaching. Includes international comparison studies such as TIMSS and PISA.

Professional knowledge of pre-service science teachers, pre-service teacher preparation, instructional methods in pre-service teacher education, programmes and policy, field experience, relation of theory with practice, and issues related to pre-service teacher education reform.    

Continuing professional development of science teachers, including in-service science teacher education programmes and policies, teachers as lifelong learners, strategies and methods for teaching science, innovation and reform in professional development, evaluation of professional development practices, reflective practice, teachers as researchers, and action research.

Science education from early childhood through primary school, with wide ranging foci including science pedagogies, children’s learning, innovative teaching practices, teacher education, social and cultural aspects of science engagement, and family involvement.

Teaching and learning theories and practices related to content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and instructional material, strategies and practices at the middle and secondary school levels.

Science teaching and learning theories, methods, pedagogies and empirical studies at the university level. Includes discussion, interpretation, implication and reflection of praxis, as well as innovative proposals and policies of teaching and learning science at university.

Foundational aspects and debates of epistemology, ontology and axiology of methods and methodologies of science education research.

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